Insurance Law – An Indian Perspective

Written by administrator
Insurance Law - An Indian Perspective

Insurance Law – An Indian Perspective


“Insurance ought to be purchased to safeguard a person towards the calamity that could or else end up being monetarily damaging. inch

Basically, insurance coverage enables somebody that experiences the reduction or even incident to become paid out for that results of the bad luck. This enables you to safeguard your self towards daily dangers for your wellness, house as well as finances.

Insurance coverage within Indian began with no legislation within the 19th Hundred years. It had been an average tale of the colonial epoch: couple of Uk insurance providers ruling the marketplace helping mainly big city facilities. Following the self-reliance, this required the theatrical change. Insurance coverage had been nationalized. Very first, the life span insurance providers had been nationalized within 1956, after which the overall insurance coverage company had been nationalized within 1972. It had been just within 1999 how the personal insurance providers happen to be permitted back to the company associated with insurance coverage along with no more than 26% associated with international keeping.

“The insurance coverage business is actually huge as well as can be very daunting. Insurance coverage has been offered for nearly everything imaginable. Identifying what is befitting you may be an extremely challenging job. inch

Ideas associated with insurance coverage happen to be prolonged past the actual protection associated with concrete resource. Right now the danger associated with deficits because of unexpected modifications within foreign exchange prices, politics disruption, carelessness as well as legal responsibility for that damage may also be protected.

However if your individual considerately spends within insurance coverage with regard to their home just before any kind of unpredicted backup he then is going to be superbly paid out with regard to their reduction the moment the actual degree associated with harm is actually determined.

The actual admittance from the Condition Financial institution associated with Indian using its suggestion associated with financial institution guarantee provides a brand new character within the online game. The actual group connection with another nations within Asian countries has deregulated their own marketplaces and it has permitted international businesses in order to take part. When the connection with another nations is actually any kind of manual, the actual prominence from the Life insurance coverage Company and also the Common Insurance coverage Company won’t vanish whenever quickly.
The purpose of just about all insurance coverage would be to make up the dog owner towards reduction as a result of a number of dangers, that he or she anticipates, in order to their existence, home as well as company. Insurance coverage is principally associated with 2 kinds: life insurance coverage as well as common insurance coverage. Common insurance coverage indicates Fireplace, Sea as well as Miscellaneous insurance coverage which include insurance coverage towards theft or even thievery, faithfulness assure, insurance coverage with regard to employer’s legal responsibility, as well as insurance coverage associated with cars, animals as well as plants.


“Life insurance coverage may be the sincere adore notice actually created.

This calms lower the actual sobbing of the starving infant through the night. This reduces one’s heart of the bereaved widow.

It’s the soothing sound at nighttime quiet several hours from the evening. inch

Life insurance coverage created it’s debut within Indian more than a century back. It’s salient functions aren’t because broadly recognized within our nation because they need to end up being. There isn’t any statutory description associated with life insurance coverage, however it’s been understood to be the agreement associated with insurance coverage where the actual covered concurs to pay for particular amounts known as rates, from specific period, as well as within thing to consider thereof the actual insurance provider decided to spend particular amounts associated with cash upon particular situation fine sand within specific method on occurring of the specific occasion depending on the actual length associated with human being existence.

Life insurance coverage is actually better than other styles associated with cost savings!

“There isn’t any passing away. Life insurance coverage exalts existence as well as beats passing away.

It’s the high quality all of us purchase the actual independence associated with residing following passing away. inch

Cost savings via life insurance coverage assure complete safety towards danger associated with passing away from the saver. Within life insurance coverage, upon passing away, the entire amount certain is actually payable (along with bonus deals where ever relevant) while within additional cost savings strategies, just the total amount preserved (along with curiosity) is actually payable.

The fundamental options that come with life insurance coverage really are a) it’s a agreement associated with human being existence, that w) offers repayment associated with lump-sum quantity, as well as d) the total amount is actually compensated following the expiration associated with particular time period or even about the passing away from the certain. The objective as well as item from the certain within getting guidelines through life insurance coverage businesses would be to protect the eye associated with their dependents viz., spouse as well as kids since the situation might be, within the actually associated with early passing away from the certain due to the actual occurring in a backup. The life insurance coverage can also be usually recognized because protection with regard to a industrial mortgage.


“Every resource includes a worth and also the company associated with common insurance coverage relates to the actual safety associated with financial worth associated with property. inch

Non-life insurance coverage indicates insurance coverage besides life insurance coverage for example fireplace, sea, incident, healthcare, automobile as well as home insurance coverage. Property might have already been produced with the initiatives associated with proprietor, which may be as creating, automobiles, equipment along with other concrete qualities. Because concrete home includes a condition as well as regularity, it’s susceptible to numerous dangers which range from fireplace, allied challenges in order to thievery as well as thievery.
Some of the Common Insurance plans tend to be:

Home Insurance coverage: The house is actually the majority of appreciated ownership. The actual plan is made to include the different dangers below just one plan. It offers safety with regard to home as well as curiosity from the covered as well as loved ones.

Medical health insurance: It offers include, that protects healthcare costs subsequent hospitalization through unexpected sickness or even incident.
Individual Incident Insurance coverage: This particular insurance plan offers payment with regard to lack of existence or even damage (incomplete or even long term) brought on by any sort of accident. Including compensation associated with price associated with remedy as well as using medical center amenities for that remedy.

Travel cover: The actual plan handles the actual covered towards numerous situations on a trip overseas. This handles the actual covered towards individual incident, healthcare costs as well as repatriation, lack of examined luggage, passport and so on.

Legal responsibility Insurance coverage: This particular plan indemnifies the actual Company directors or even Officials or even additional experts towards reduction as a result of statements created towards all of them through cause associated with any kind of wrongful Behave within their Recognized capability.

Engine Insurance coverage: Cars Behave says that each automobile plying on the highway needs to be covered, along with a minimum of Legal responsibility just plan. You will find 2 kinds of plan 1 since the behave associated with legal responsibility, whilst additional handles insurance companies just about all legal responsibility as well as harm triggered in order to a person’s automobiles.


Historic Viewpoint

A brief history associated with life insurance coverage within Indian goes back in order to 1818 whenever it had been created as a way to supply with regard to British Widows. Oddly enough in those times a greater high quality had been billed with regard to Indian native life compared to non-Indian life because Indian native life had been regarded as much more dangerous with regard to protection.

The actual Bombay Shared Life insurance coverage Culture began it’s company within 1870. It had been the very first organization in order to cost exact same high quality with regard to each Indian native as well as non-Indian life. The actual Asian Guarantee Organization had been set up within 1880. The overall insurance coverage company within Indian, however, may find it’s origins towards the Triton (Tital) Insurance provider Restricted, the very first common insurance provider set up within the 12 months 1850 within Calcutta through the Uk. Until the finish associated with 19th hundred years insurance coverage company had been nearly completely within the fingers associated with abroad businesses.

Insurance coverage legislation officially started within Indian using the moving from the Life insurance coverage Businesses Behave associated with 1912 and also the Provident Account Behave associated with 1912. A number of ripoffs throughout 20′s as well as 30′s desecrated insurance coverage company within Indian. Through 1938 there have been 176 insurance providers. The very first thorough laws had been launched using the Insurance coverage Behave associated with 1938 which supplied rigid Condition Manage more than insurance coverage company. The actual insurance coverage company increased in a quicker speed following self-reliance. Indian native businesses increased their own hang on e-commerce however regardless of the development which was observed, insurance coverage continued to be a good city trend.

The federal government associated with Indian within 1956, introduced collectively more than 240 personal existence insurance companies as well as provident communities below 1 nationalized monopoly company as well as Life insurance coverage Company (LIC) was created. Nationalization had been validated about the reasons it might produce necessary money with regard to quick industrialization. It was within conformity using the Government’s selected route associated with Condition guide preparing as well as improvement.

The actual (non-life) insurance coverage company ongoing in order to succeed using the personal field until 1972. Their own procedures had been limited to structured industry as well as business within big metropolitan areas. The overall insurance coverage business had been nationalized within 1972. With this particular, almost 107 insurance companies had been blend as well as arranged in to 4 businesses — Nationwide Insurance provider, Brand new Indian Guarantee Organization, Asian Insurance provider as well as U . s . Indian Insurance provider. They were subsidiaries from the Common Insurance provider (GIC).

The life span insurance coverage business had been nationalized underneath the Life insurance coverage Company (LIC) Behave associated with Indian. In certain methods, the actual LIC is becoming really thriving. No matter as being a monopoly, it’s a few 60-70 zillion policyholders. Considering the fact that the actual Indian native middle-class is about 250-300 zillion, the actual LIC offers were able to catch a few thirty unusual % from it. Close to 48% from the clients from the LIC tend to be through non-urban as well as semi-urban places. This particular might not possess occurred experienced the actual rental from the LIC not really particularly put down the aim of helping the actual non-urban places. A higher preserving price within Indian is among the exogenous elements which have assisted the actual LIC to develop quickly recently. Regardless of the preserving price becoming full of Indian (in contrast to additional nations having a comparable degree of improvement), Indians show higher level of danger aversion. Therefore, almost 1 / 2 of the actual opportunities have been in bodily property (such as home as well as precious metal). Close to 12 % have been in (reduced containing however secure) financial institution debris. Additionally, a few 1. 3 % from the GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT have been in life insurance coverage associated cost savings automobiles. This particular determine offers bending in between 1985 as well as 1995.

A global point of view — Life insurance coverage within Indian

In several nations, insurance coverage is a type of cost savings. In several created nations, a substantial small fraction associated with household preserving is actually as gift insurance coverage. This isn’t astonishing. The actual dominance associated with a few building nations is actually much more astonishing. For instance, Southern The african continent functions in the quantity 2 place. Indian is actually situated in between Chile as well as Italia. This really is much more astonishing provided the actual amounts of financial improvement within Chile as well as Italia. Therefore, we are able to determine that there’s a good insurance coverage lifestyle within Indian in spite of a minimal for each capita earnings. This particular guarantees nicely with regard to long term development. Particularly, once the earnings degree enhances, insurance coverage (particularly existence) will probably develop quickly.


Panel Reviews: 1 Recognized, 1 Unknown!

Even though Indian native marketplaces had been privatized as well as opened in order to international businesses in many industries within 1991, insurance coverage continued to be from range upon each matters. The federal government desired to continue along with extreme caution. Along with stress in the competitors, the federal government (at that time, centered through the Our elected representatives Celebration) made the decision to setup the panel going through Mr. Ur. D. Malhotra (the actual after that Governor from the Book Financial institution associated with Indian).

Malhotra Panel

Liberalization from the Indian native insurance coverage marketplace had been advised inside a statement launched within 1994 through the Malhotra Panel, showing how the marketplace ought to be opened up in order to private-sector competitors, and finally, international private-sector competitors. Additionally, it looked into the amount of fulfillment from the clients from the LIC. Inquisitively, the amount of client satisfaction appeared to be higher.

Within 1993, Malhotra Panel — going through previous Financial Assistant as well as RBI Governor Mr. Ur. D. Malhotra — had been created to judge the actual Indian native insurance coverage business as well as suggest it’s long term program. The actual Malhotra panel had been setup along with the purpose of matching the actual reforms started within the monetary field. The actual reforms had been targeted at developing a better as well as aggressive economic climate ideal for the requirements from the economic climate bearing in mind the actual structural modifications at present occurring as well as realizing which insurance coverage is definitely an essential the main general economic climate exactly where it had been essential to tackle the requirement with regard to comparable reforms. Within 1994, the actual panel posted the actual statement as well as a few of the crucial suggestions incorporated:

to Framework

Federal government wager within the insurance providers to become introduced right down to 50%. Federal government ought to dominate the actual holdings associated with GIC and it is subsidiaries to ensure that these types of subsidiaries may behave as impartial companies. All of the insurance providers ought to be provided higher independence to use.

Personal Businesses having a minimal compensated upward funds associated with Rs. 1 million ought to be permitted to key in the actual field. No business ought to offer within each Existence as well as Common Insurance coverage via a solitary organization. International businesses might be permitted to key in the within effort using the household businesses. Postal Life insurance coverage ought to be permitted to run within the non-urban marketplace. Just one Condition Degree Life insurance coverage Organization ought to be permitted to run within every condition.

to Regulating Entire body

The actual Insurance coverage Behave ought to be transformed. A good Insurance coverage Regulating entire body ought to be setup. Controller associated with Insurance coverage — part of the actual Financial Ministry- ought to be created Impartial.

to Opportunities

Required Opportunities associated with LIC Existence Account within federal government investments to become decreased through 75% in order to 50%. GIC and it is subsidiaries aren’t to keep a lot more than 5% in a organization (presently there present holdings to become introduced right down to this particular degree more than some time).

to Customer support

LIC ought to spend curiosity upon delays within obligations past thirty days. Insurance providers should be urged to setup device connected type of pension programs. Computerization associated with procedures as well as upgrading associated with technologies to become completed within the insurance coverage business. The actual panel emphasized which to be able to enhance the client providers as well as boost the protection associated with insurance plans, business ought to be opened in order to competitors. However simultaneously, the actual panel experienced the requirement to physical exercise extreme caution because any kind of failing for brand new rivals might wreck the general public self-confidence in the market. Therefore, it had been chose to permit competitors inside a restricted method through stipulating the actual minimal funds dependence on Rs. 100 crores.

The actual panel experienced the requirement to supply higher autonomy in order to insurance providers to be able to enhance their own overall performance as well as allow these phones behave as impartial businesses along with financial causes. For this function, this experienced suggested establishing a completely independent regulating entire body — The actual Insurance coverage Regulating as well as Improvement Expert.

Reforms within the Insurance coverage field had been started using the passing from the IRDA Expenses within Parliament within Dec 1999. The actual IRDA because it’s incorporation like a statutory entire body within 04 2000 offers thoroughly trapped in order to it’s routine associated with framework rules as well as signing up the actual personal field insurance providers.

Because becoming setup being an impartial statutory entire body the actual IRDA offers place in the construction associated with internationally suitable rules. Another choice used simultaneously to supply the actual helping techniques towards the insurance coverage field as well as particularly the life span insurance providers had been the actual release from the IRDA on the internet support with regard to concern as well as restoration associated with permit in order to brokers. The actual authorization associated with establishments with regard to providing instruction in order to brokers has additionally made certain how the insurance providers might have an experienced labor force associated with insurance coverage brokers in position to market their own items.

The federal government associated with Indian liberalized the actual insurance coverage field within 03 2000 using the passing from the Insurance coverage Regulating as well as Improvement Expert (IRDA) Expenses, raising just about all admittance limitations with regard to personal gamers as well as permitting international gamers in order to key in the marketplace along with a few limitations upon immediate international possession. Underneath the present recommendations, there’s a twenty six % collateral cover with regard to international companions within an insurance provider. There’s a suggestion to improve this particular restrict in order to forty-nine %.

The actual opening from the field will probably result in higher distribute as well as deepening associated with insurance coverage within Indian which could also consist of restructuring as well as stimulating from the open public field businesses. Within the personal field 12 life insurance coverage as well as 8 common insurance providers happen to be authorized. A number associated with personal Insurance providers working within each existence as well as non-life sections possess began promoting their own insurance plans because 2001

Mukherjee Panel

Soon after the actual book from the Malhotra Panel Statement, a brand new panel, Mukherjee Panel had been setup to create cement programs for that needs from the recently created insurance providers. Suggestions from the Mukherjee Panel had been in no way revealed towards the open public. However, in the info which strained away this grew to become obvious how the panel suggested the actual addition associated with particular percentages within insurance provider stability linens to make sure openness within sales. However the Financial Minister objected into it also it had been contended through him or her, most likely about the guidance associated with a few of the possible rivals, it might impact the actual potential customers of the building insurance provider.


What the law states Fee upon sixteenth 06 2003 launched an appointment Document about the Modification from the Insurance coverage Behave, 1938. The prior physical exercise in order to modify the actual Insurance coverage Behave, 1938 had been carried out within 1999 during the time of enactment from the Insurance coverage Regulating Improvement Expert Behave, 1999 (IRDA Behave).

The actual Fee began the current physical exercise within the framework from the transformed plan which has allowed personal insurance providers each within the existence as well as non-life industries. The require may be experienced in order to toughen the actual regulating system whilst streamlining the present laws having a look at in order to getting rid of servings which have turn out to be unnoticed as a result of the actual current modifications.

One of the main regions of modifications, the actual Discussion document advised the next:

the. joining from the procedures from the IRDA Behave using the Insurance coverage Behave to prevent multiplicity associated with regulation;

w. removal associated with repetitive as well as transitory procedures within the Insurance coverage Behave, 1938;

d. Changes reveal the actual transformed plan associated with enabling personal insurance providers as well as conditioning the actual regulating system;

deb. Supplying with regard to strict norms concerning upkeep associated with ‘solvency margin’ as well as opportunities through each open public field as well as personal field insurance providers;

at the. Supplying for any full-fledged complaint redressal system which includes:

to The actual make-up associated with Complaint Redressal Government bodies (GRAs) composed of 1 judicial as well as 2 specialized people to cope with complaints/claims associated with policyholders towards insurance companies (the actual GRAs are required to change the current program associated with insurance provider hired Ombudsman);

to Visit associated with adjudicating officials through the IRDA to find out as well as garnishment fees and penalties upon defaulting insurance companies, insurance coverage intermediaries as well as insurance coverage brokers;

to Supplying to have an attractiveness from the choices from the IRDA, GRAs as well as adjudicating officials for an Insurance coverage Appellate Tribunal (IAT) composed of the assess (seated or even upon the market) from the Best Court/Chief Rights of the Higher Courtroom because presiding official as well as 2 additional people getting adequate encounter within insurance coverage issues;

to Supplying for any statutory attract the actual Best Courtroom from the choices from the IAT.

EXISTENCE & NON-LIFE INSURANCE COVERAGE — Improvement as well as Development!

The entire year 2006 ended up being the important 12 months for that insurance coverage field because regulator the actual Insurance coverage Regulating Improvement Expert Behave, set the building blocks free of charge prices common insurance coverage through 2007, although businesses introduced programs in order to assault to the field.

Each household as well as international gamers robustly went after their own long-pending need with regard to growing the actual FDI restrict through twenty six percent in order to forty-nine percent as well as towards the actual fag finish from the 12 months, the federal government delivered the actual Thorough Insurance coverage Expenses in order to Number of Ministers with regard to thing to consider among powerful booking through Remaining events. The actual Expenses will probably be adopted within the Spending budget program associated with Parliament.

The actual infiltration prices associated with health insurance and additional non-life insurance policies within Indian tend to be nicely beneath the actual worldwide degree. These types of details show enormous development possible from the insurance coverage field. The actual backpack within FDI restrict in order to forty-nine percent had been suggested through the Federal government this past year. This particular is not operationalized because legal modifications are needed with regard to this kind of backpack. Because opening from the insurance coverage field within 1999, international opportunities associated with Rs. 8. 7 million possess tipped to the Indian native marketplace as well as twenty one personal businesses happen to be given permit.

The actual participation from the personal insurance companies in a variety of business sections offers elevated due to each their own recording part of the company that was previously underwritten through the open public field insurance companies as well as making extra company boulevards. For this impact, the general public field insurance companies happen to be not able to pull on their own natural talents in order to catch extra high quality. From the development within high quality within 2004-05, 66. 28 percent may be taken through the personal insurance companies in spite of getting 20 percent marketplace reveal.

The life span insurance coverage business documented reasonably limited earnings associated with Rs. 82854. eighty crore throughout the monetary 12 months 2004-05 because towards Rs. 66653. seventy five crore in the earlier monetary 12 months, documenting a rise associated with twenty-four. thirty-one percent. The actual factor associated with very first 12 months high quality, solitary high quality as well as restoration high quality towards the complete high quality had been Rs. 15881. thirty-three crore (nineteen. sixteen percent); Rs. 10336. thirty crore (12. forty seven percent); as well as Rs. 56637. sixteen crore (68. thirty six percent), respectively. Within the 12 months 2000-01, once the business had been opened towards the personal gamers, the life span insurance coverage high quality had been Rs. thirty four, 898. forty eight crore that constituted associated with Rs. 6996. ninety five crore associated with very first 12 months high quality, Rs. 25191. ’07 crore associated with restoration high quality as well as Rs. 2740. forty five crore associated with solitary high quality. Publish opening, solitary high quality experienced rejected through Rs. 9, 194. ’07 crore within the 12 months 2001-02 in order to Rs. 5674. fourteen crore within 2002-03 using the drawback from the assured come back guidelines. Although this proceeded to go upward partially within 2003-04 in order to Rs. 5936. 50 crore (four. sixty two percent development) 2004-05, nevertheless, observed a substantial change using the solitary high quality earnings increasing in order to Rs. 10336. thirty crore displaying 74. 11 percent development more than 2003-04.

How big life insurance coverage marketplace elevated upon the effectiveness of development throughout the economy as well as concomitant improve within for each capita earnings. This particular led to the great development as a whole high quality each with regard to LIC (eighteen. twenty five percent) and also to the brand new insurance companies (147. 65 percent) within 2004-05. The larger development for that brand new insurance companies will be seen within the framework of the reduced bottom within 2003- ’04. Nevertheless, the brand new insurance companies possess enhanced their own marketplace reveal through four. 68 within 2003-04 in order to 9. thirty-three within 2004-05.

The actual section sensible split up associated with fireplace, sea as well as miscellaneous sections in the event of the general public field insurance companies had been Rs. 2411. 37 crore, Rs. 982. 99 crore as well as Rs. 10578. fifty nine crore, we. at the., a rise associated with (–)1. 43 percent, 1. 80 percent as well as 6. fifty eight percent. The general public field insurance companies documented development within Engine as well as Wellness sections (9 as well as twenty-four percent). These types of sections paid for with regard to forty five as well as 10 percent from the company underwritten through the open public field insurance companies. Fireplace as well as “Others” paid for with regard to seventeen. twenty six as well as 11 percent from the high quality underwritten. Aviation, Legal responsibility, “Others” as well as Fireplace documented damaging development associated with twenty nine, twenty one, 3. fifty eight as well as 1. 43 percent. Within absolutely no additional nation which opened up simultaneously because Indian possess international businesses had the opportunity to seize the twenty two percent marketplace reveal within the existence section as well as regarding 20 percent within the common insurance coverage section. The actual reveal associated with international insurance companies within additional contending Hard anodized cookware marketplaces is actually only 5 in order to 10 percent.

The life span insurance coverage field increased brand new high quality for a price not really observed prior to as the common insurance coverage field increased quicker. 2 brand new gamers joined in to life insurance coverage — Shriram Existence as well as Bharti Axa Existence — getting the entire quantity of existence gamers in order to sixteen. There is 1 brand new entrant towards the non-life field as the separate medical health insurance organization — Celebrity Health insurance and Allied Insurance coverage, getting the actual non-life gamers in order to fourteen.

A lot of businesses, mainly nationalized banking institutions (regarding fourteen) for example Financial institution associated with Indian as well as Punjab Nationwide Financial institution, possess introduced programs in order to key in the actual insurance coverage field as well as a number of them also have created combined endeavors.

The actual suggested alter within FDI limit is actually the main thorough changes in order to insurance coverage laws and regulations — The actual Insurance coverage Behave associated with 1999, LIC Behave, 1956 as well as IRDA Behave, 1999. Following the suggested changes within the insurance coverage laws and regulations LIC could preserve supplies whilst insurance providers could increase assets besides collateral.

Regarding fourteen banking institutions have been in line in order to key in insurance coverage field and also the 12 months 2006 noticed a number of partnership bulletins while some search companions. Financial institution associated with Indian offers teamed upward along with Marriage Financial institution as well as Japoneses insurance coverage main Dai-ichi Shared Existence whilst PNB tangled up along with Vijaya Financial institution as well as Primary with regard to foraying in to life insurance coverage. Allahabad Financial institution, Karnataka Financial institution, Indian native Abroad Financial institution, Dabur Expense Company as well as Sompo Asia Insurance coverage Inc possess tangled up with regard to developing the non-life insurance provider whilst Financial institution associated with Maharashtra offers tangled up along with Shriram Team as well as Southern Africa’s Sanlam team with regard to non-life insurance coverage endeavor.


It appears negative how the LIC and also the GIC may die as well as pass away next 10 years or even 2. The actual IRDA has had “at the snail’s pace” strategy. It’s been really careful within allowing permit. It’s setup pretty rigid requirements for those facets of the actual insurance coverage company (using the likely exclusion from the disclosure needs). The actual government bodies usually stroll an excellent collection. A lot of rules destroy the actual inspiration from the beginners; as well calm rules might stimulate failing as well as scams which resulted in nationalization to begin with. Indian isn’t distinctive one of the building nations in which the insurance coverage company may be opened in order to international rivals.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>